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Three Ways to Reduce Motor Weight and Improve Efficiency

Views: 125     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-08-05      Origin: Site

三种减轻电机重量和提高效率的方法

根据设计的系统类型及其运行的潜在环境,电机重量对系统的总体成本和运行价值可能非常重要。电机重量减轻可以从多个方向解决,包括通用电机设计、高效部件生产和材料选择。为了实现这一目标,有必要改进电机开发的所有方面:从设计到使用优化材料高效生产部件,轻质材料的使用和新颖的制造工艺。一般来说,电机的效率取决于电机的类型、大小、利用率,还取决于所用材料的质量和数量。因此,从所有这些方面来看,需要使用能源和成本效益高的部件来开发电机。 

 

电机是一种机电能量转换装置,以线性或旋转运动的形式将电能转换为机械能,电机的工作原理主要取决于磁场和电场的相互作用。许多参数可用于比较电机:扭矩、功率密度、结构、基本工作原理、损耗系数、动态响应和效率,最后一个是最重要的一个。电机效率低的原因主要可归因于以下因素:尺寸不当,所用电机的电气效率低、终端用户(泵、风扇、压缩机等)机械效率低没有速度控制系统维护不力甚至根本不存在。

 

为了最大限度地提高电机的能量性能,必须将电机运行过程中各种能量转换产生的损失降至最低。事实上,在电机中,能量从电能转变为电磁能,然后再转变为机械能。提高效率的电机不同于传统的电动机,因为前者的损耗最小。事实上,在传统电机中,损失主要由以下原因造成:摩擦损失和风阻损失(轴承、电刷和通风)造成的机械损失真空铁中的损耗(与电压平方成比例),与流动方向变化有关的分散能量滞后引起的损耗,以及由堆芯内的循环电流和流动变化引起的涡流引起的损耗焦耳效应造成的损耗(与电流平方成正比)。

 

适当的设计

设计最高效的电机是减轻重量的一个关键方面,因为大多数电机都是为广泛使用而设计的,所以适合特定应用的合适电机通常比实际需要的大。为了克服这一挑战,重要的是寻找愿意以半定制方式改变的电机制造公司,从电机绕组和磁性元件到机架尺寸。为了确保有正确的绕组,需要了解电机的规格,以便能够保持应用所需的精确扭矩和速度。除了调整绕组外,制造商还可以根据磁导率的变化改变电机的磁性设计,在转子和定子之间正确放置稀土磁体有助于增加电机的整体扭矩。

 

新型制造工艺

制造商能够不断升级自己的设备,以生产公差更高的电机部件,从而消除曾经用作防破损安全裕度的厚壁和密集区域。由于每个部件都是使用最新技术重新设计和制造的,因此可以在多个包含磁性部件的地方减轻重量,包括绝缘和涂层、机架和电机轴。


材料选择

材料选择对电机运行、效率和重量有整体影响,举个最明显的例子,这就是为什么这么多制造商使用铝框架而不是不锈钢。制造商们一直在继续试验具有电磁和绝缘特性的材料,制造商正在使用各种不同的复合材料以及较轻的金属,这些材料提供了钢组件的轻质替代品。出于安装目的,根据用户对最终电机的具体要求,可使用多种增强塑料、聚合物和树脂。随着电机设计师不断试验和研究替代部件,包括用于密封目的的密度较低的涂层和树脂,他们为生产过程注入了新的活力,这往往会影响电机的重量。此外,制造商还提供无框架电机,可通过完全消除框架对电机重量产生影响。

 

结论

使用轻质材料、新型制造工艺、磁性材料来减轻电机重量和提高电机效率的技术。电机,尤其是在汽车应用中,代表着越来越多的未来技术。因此,即使还有很长的路要走,希望这成为一项日益巩固的技术,提高效率的电动机能够解决与节能相关的问题。

 


Three Ways to Reduce Motor Weight and Improve Efficiency

Depending on the type of system being designed and the underlying environment in which it operates, motor weight can be very important to the overall cost and operating value of the system. Motor weight reduction can be addressed in several directions, including universal motor design, efficient component production, and material selection. To achieve this, it is necessary to improve all aspects of motor development: from design to efficient production of components using optimized materials, the use of lightweight materials and novel manufacturing processes. Generally speaking, the efficiency of a motor depends on the type, size, utilization of the motor, and also on the quality and quantity of materials used. Therefore, from all these aspects, electric motors need to be developed using energy and cost-effective components.

A motor is an electromechanical energy conversion device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy in the form of linear or rotary motion. The working principle of a motor mainly depends on the interaction of magnetic and electric fields. Many parameters can be used to compare motors: torque, power density, construction, basic operating principle, loss factor, dynamic response and efficiency, the last one being the most important one. The reasons for low motor efficiency can be mainly attributed to the following factors: improper size, low electrical efficiency of the motor used, low mechanical efficiency of the end user (pumps, fans, compressors, etc.) No speed control system that is poorly maintained or even non-existent.


In order to maximize the energy performance of a motor, losses from various energy conversions during motor operation must be minimized. In fact, in an electric machine, energy is converted from electrical to electromagnetic and then back to mechanical. Efficiency-enhancing electric motors differ from conventional electric motors because they have minimal losses. In fact, in conventional motors, losses are mainly caused by: friction losses and mechanical losses due to windage losses (bearings, brushes and ventilation) losses in vacuum iron (proportional to the square of voltage), related to changes in flow direction Losses due to the hysteresis of the dispersed energy of the core, and losses due to the Joule effect (proportional to the square of the current) due to eddy currents caused by circulating currents and flow variations in the core.


proper design

Designing the most efficient motor is a key aspect of reducing weight, and because most motors are designed for widespread use, the right motor for a specific application is often larger than what is actually needed. To overcome this challenge, it is important to find motor manufacturing companies that are willing to make changes in semi-custom ways, from motor windings and magnetics to frame size. To ensure that there is the correct winding, it is necessary to know the specifications of the motor so that the precise torque and speed required for the application can be maintained. In addition to adjusting the windings, manufacturers can also change the magnetic design of the motor based on changes in permeability. Proper placement of rare-earth magnets between the rotor and stator can help increase the motor's overall torque.


new manufacturing process

Manufacturers are able to continuously upgrade their equipment to produce higher tolerance motor components, eliminating the thick walls and dense areas once used as a safety margin against breakage. Because each component is redesigned and manufactured using the latest technology, weight can be reduced in multiple places that incorporate magnetic components, including insulation and coatings, frames and motor shafts.



material selection

Material selection has an overall impact on motor operation, efficiency and weight, which is the most obvious example of why so many manufacturers use aluminum frames instead of stainless steel. Manufacturers have continued to experiment with materials with electromagnetic and insulating properties, and manufacturers are using a variety of different composite materials as well as lighter metals that offer lightweight alternatives to steel components. For installation purposes, a variety of reinforced plastics, polymers and resins are available, depending on the user's specific requirements for the final motor. As motor designers continue to experiment and research alternative components, including lower density coatings and resins for sealing purposes, they breathe new life into the production process, which often affects the weight of the motor. Additionally, manufacturers offer frameless motors, which can have an impact on motor weight by completely eliminating the frame.


Conclusion

Technologies that use lightweight materials, novel manufacturing processes, and magnetic materials to reduce motor weight and improve motor efficiency. Electric motors, especially in automotive applications, represent an increasing number of future technologies. So, even if there is still a long way to go, hopefully this becomes an increasingly consolidated technology, with improved efficiency electric motors addressing issues related to energy savings.